had to fight for the Throne (reigned
was the son of King Henry
I's sister. His father was the Count of Blois in France.
- King Henry brought him up after
his father died.
- He became a close advisor to his
uncle and helped him run the country.
- When King Henry died, his
should have inherited the Throne. But England had never had a Queen
before and Stephen was made King instead.
- At first, things ran smoothly,
Matilda decided to invade from Normandy.
- A civil war, sometimes called
'The Anarchy', was fought between the two sides from 1139 until 1154.
- Matilda was helped by her
powerful half-brother, Robert of Gloucester. His base was in Bristol.
Stephen's base was in London. He was helped by the Church. His brother
was Henry, the Bishop of Winchester.
- The war did not affect ordinary
people much, but their were lots of battles. Stephen was captured at
the Battle of Lincoln in 1141.
- For a few months Matilda was in
charge. But she upset the Londoners and had to flee the City.
- When Robert of Gloucester was
captured at the 'Rout of (retreat from) Winchester', Matilda decide to
swap Stephen for him.
- Eventually, she got bored and
went back to Normandy. However, her son Henry
II, later returned with an army.
- Because Stephen's own son died,
he signed the Treaty of Wallingford with him. In this, they agreed
that Henry should become king after Stephen's death.